Educational Articles

Dogs + Medical Conditions

  • A focal seizure refers to an abnormal surge of electrical activity that is confined to a specific area of the brain. Unlike a generalized seizure, in which the animal's entire brain is affected and therefore the entire body shows signs of a seizure, a focal seizure only affects a localized region of the brain and therefore only has limited effects on the body.

  • Food allergy is one of the five most common allergies or hypersensitivities known to affect dogs. In a pet with an allergy, the immune system overreacts and produces antibodies to substances that it would normally tolerate. In the dog, the signs of food allergy are usually itchy skin or digestive disturbances such as vomiting or diarrhea. The best and most accurate method of diagnosing food allergy is to feed a hypoallergenic diet for eight to twelve weeks as a food trial called an elimination trial.

  • Frostbite or congelatio in medical terminology is the damage that is caused to skin and other tissues due to extreme cold. When the environmental temperature drops below 32°F (0°C), blood vessels close to the skin start to narrow or constrict.

  • Gastritis is defined as inflammation of the lining of the stomach. The most common clinical signs associated with gastritis are sudden vomiting and decreased appetite (anorexia). Other clinical signs may include dehydration, lethargy or depression, increased thirst, blood in the vomit or feces, and abdominal pain. In acute cases, only minimal diagnostics such as blood and urine tests are required. Treatment is based on the specific cause. Most acute cases resolve without medical intervention.

  • Gastroenteritis refers to inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, meaning the stomach and the intestines. It can be caused by infection with bacteria, viruses, or parasites, medications, or even new foods. The condition often causes abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and/or other clinical signs. Gastroenteritis is a diagnosis of exclusion. The principal treatment of gastroenteritis is rehydration and restoration of blood electrolyte balance (sodium, potassium, and/or chloride). Most cases of acute gastroenteritis improve rapidly after rehydration.

  • A gastropexy is a surgical procedure that is sometimes performed in large breed dogs to prevent gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV), also known as bloat. A gastropexy may be performed prophylactically or may be done as part of the surgical management of GDV.

  • The size and shape of the normal eye is maintained by the amount of fluid within the eyeball. The pressure of the fluid inside the front or anterior chamber of the eye is known as the intra-ocular pressure (IOP). Fluid inside the eye is constantly produced by a structure called the ciliary body.

  • Globoid-cell leukodystrophy (GCL) is also called Krabbe disease, and it is uniformly fatal. GCL is a very rare disease, and it is caused by a mutation on the dog's DNA.

  • Glomerulonephritis, also known as glomerular nephritis (GN), is a specific type of renal (kidney) disease characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli, which are the tiny structures in the kidneys that act as filters for the blood.

  • Recently, veterinarians discovered that grapes, raisins and currants (fruits from Vitis species) can cause kidney failure in dogs.