Educational Articles

  • The first step in processing a blood sample is centrifugation. The blood is placed in a centrifuge, where it is spun in a small circle at high speed (much like a spinning ride at an amusement park).

  • Buprenorphine is used to treat pain in dogs and cats. Buprenorphine is a synthetic partial opiate agonist.

  • Buspirone may be used in treating certain behavior disorders in dogs and cats, e.g. chronic fears, anxiety, or aggression. It may also be effective for the management of urine spraying and inappropriate urination in cats.

  • Buspirone (Buspar®) is a human antidepressant drug. It has been shown to be effective in a significant number of cats with elimination (urination or defecation) disorders such as inappropriate urination, especially urine marking and other behavior problems.

  • A caesarean section or C-section is major surgery performed to remove kittens from the uterus. This is most commonly performed as an emergency procedure when there is difficulty with natural birth. Most cats recover quickly from this procedure. Most cats have fully recovered from anesthesia by the time they are discharged to go home.

  • Pet owners may not realize that caffeine can be harmful to their pets. They also may not know that many foods and drinks in their cupboards contain caffeine. This particular chemical boost can be toxic for them.

  • Calcium deposits in the skin have a variety of causes. Calcinosis circumscripta is deposition of calcium at bony prominences or, in the footpads and mouth. It is usually a disease of large dog breeds and occurs before two years of age. Calcinosis cutis is induced by local skin damage in susceptible animals and takes two forms: dystrophic or metastatic. The appearance of the skin lesions may lead your veterinarian to suspect calcium deposits as the problem, particularly when the age, breed, and clinical history are considered. Blood tests can help indicate some underlying conditions, but confirmation by skin biopsy may be necessary. While small deposits may be resorbed without treatment over time, surgery is the best choice for larger deposits.

  • Calcitriol is used to regulate calcium levels in the blood. It is a Vitamin D analogue that promotes the absorption of calcium from the intestinal tract. It may be used to treat calcium deficiency associated with hypoparathyroidism. It has also been used to reduce parathyroid hormone concentrations in dogs with chronic kidney disease.

  • Calcium is a major structural component of bones and teeth, and is an essential dietary mineral. Various forms of calcium are available for supplementation.

  • Calendula (Calendula officinalis), or pot marigold, is very commonly used in herbal medicine as a topical anti-inflammatory and antiseptic. Its soothing effect is due to its ability to scavenge free radicals (which are products of inflammation), preventing them from causing further inflammation, and to its ability to inhibit lymphocyte proliferation (a white blood cell associated with the immune system).