Educational Articles

  • While cannabis use is not new, its use for recreational purposes is more recent. As with any other medication, the increased accessibility to the drug has led to an increase in accidental exposure in pets. A small amount of cannabis is all it takes to cause toxicity in pets. Many of the clinical effects of intoxication are neurological. Pets become wobbly and uncoordinated. They may be hyperactive, disoriented, and very vocal. Their pupils dilate giving them a wild-eyed appearance and they may drool excessively or vomit. They may also exhibit urinary incontinence. In severe cases tremors, seizures, and coma can result. Activated charcoal may be administered every 6-8 hours to neutralize the toxin. Enemas are also used to reduce toxin absorption from the GI tract. Medications and supportive care to regulate the pet's heart rate, respiration, and body temperature are used if needed. Since the pet may be lethargic with no desire to eat or drink, IV fluids can prevent dehydration and maintain organ function. Anti-anxiety medications can minimize agitation.

  • Capillaria is a small internal parasite, related to intestinal worms. Capillaria, however, can live in a number of areas within the body, including the bladder and respiratory tract. There are multiple species of Capillaria; some species affect cats, some affect dogs, and some can affect both species. These parasites are acquired from the environment, when a cat eats the Capillaria eggs directly or eats an earthworm infected with the parasite. Treatment is simple and effective, though diagnosis can be challenging.

  • Captopril is an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) that is used to lower blood pressure and to improve heart function.

  • Cardiomyopathy is a term used to describe diseases of the heart muscle. In cats, three classes of cardiomyopathy have been described: hypertrophic, dilated, and intermediate or restrictive cardiomyopathy. In all classes, the heart disease usually results in clinical signs of heart failure.

  • Modern vaccines are extremely effective and safe. However, it is common for many pets to experience mild side effects following vaccination, similar to those that humans experience. Other less common but more serious side effects can occur within minutes to hours after vaccination. These reactions are considered medical emergencies, and you should seek veterinary care immediately if you suspect your pet is having a more serious reaction.

  • Wounds can be simple or complicated and prompt veterinary attention is important to improve a successful outcome. Care must be used to not use topical treatments unless directed by your veterinarian as these may inadvertently delay healing. Pain medication and good home care can help aid in healing.

  • Post-operative incisions in your cat may or may not have visible stitches. It is very important to follow the instructions to ensure appropriate healing. If your cat chews or licks excessively at the incision, there is a danger of the stitches being pulled out or of infection being introduced into the wound and you may need to use an Elizabethan collar to prevent this behavior. Do not hesitate to contact your veterinarian with any questions or concerns.

  • Carnitine (L-carnitine is the active form of carnitine) is an amino acid that the body uses to turn fat into energy. Carnitine is not normally considered an essential nutrient because the body can manufacture all it needs in the liver using the amino acids lysine or methionine, and vitamins C, B1 and B6.

  • Carprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent used to relieve pain and inflammation in dogs.

  • Cats are highly attached to territory, and movement away from that secure base is not something that is undertaken lightly! Traveling in cars, planes and other forms of human transportation can be a very stressful experience for all concerned, in part because the cat is no longer in control of its own experience.