Educational Articles


  • Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive, degenerative disease of the joints. It is one of the most common chronic diseases of dogs. By some estimates, 20% of dogs of all ages are affected by OA.

  • In recent years, veterinarians have made great progress in understanding how dogs feel pain and the best ways to manage that pain. Many dogs will instinctively hide their pain as a survival mechanism, which, in the past, lead to incorrect assumptions about the ability of dogs to feel pain.

  • OA in the spine can be a very significant source of pain and weakness in older dogs. Relieving their pain, managing any joint disease, normalizing body condition, and managing their environment appropriately can all make important contributions to both comfort and mobility.

  • Veterinary palliative medicine is a philosophy of care in which a decision has been made to decline or withdraw the pursuit of curative therapy for a life-limiting illness. Some diseases that we treat in dogs are managed over the long term without any hope for a cure.

  • The definition of a pneumothorax is an accumulation of air outside the lungs, but inside the chest wall. The air outside the lung prevents the lungs from inflating normally, and can lead to lung collapse. There are several variations of pneumothorax.

  • After arriving at home, you should keep your cat warm and comfortable by providing a soft clean bed, ideally in a quiet and draft-free room at a comfortable room temperature. Your cat should remain indoors. For most procedures, your cat’s activity should be restricted for one full week after surgery. Some cats experience nausea after general anesthesia, so dividing meals into smaller portions may decrease the risk of nausea and vomiting.

  • Urinary tract infections are fairly uncommon in cats, although they generally involve the bladder and urethra and are described as lower urinary tract infections. Pyelonephritis is more accurately described as an upper urinary tract infection. The upper urinary tract consists of the kidneys and the ureters.

  • Many sick birds can be treated by their owners at home. While some birds are gravely ill and require hospitalization, most birds can recover with proper treatment and care at home. This handout will provide you with some tips to help your bird's recovery.

  • Skunks have a pair of specialized sacs located in their anus; each sac is connected to the outside by a small duct that opens just inside the anus. The sacs are merely pouches that store an extremely foul smelling secretion produced by glands that line the sacs.

  • Spondylosis deformans is a condition that affects the vertebral bones of the spine and is characterized by the presence of bony spurs or ‘osteophytes’ along the edges of the bones of the spine. A bony spur may develop in a single spot on the spine; more commonly, there will be multiple bone spurs in several different locations along the spine.