Educational Articles

Tumors

  • The pancreas is a glandular organ located close to the liver, the stomach, and the small intestine. It has two main functions, an exocrine function and an endocrine function.

  • The four parathyroid glands (two on each side) are closely associated with the thyroid gland, located just below the larynx or voice box in the neck.

  • The pituitary gland is an endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. Endocrine glands produce specialized chemicals called hormones, which regulate and integrate many activities to maintain internal stability of the body.

  • Plasma cell tumors develop as a result of dysregulated production of plasma cells and are relatively uncommon in dogs and cats. Some plasma cell tumors are benign and are typically confined to the skin or oral cavity, and most are very treatable. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for removal of benign plasma cell tumors, with little to no recurrence if completely excised. Conversely, multiple myeloma is an aggressive cancer that is usually treated with chemotherapy.

  • The definition of a pneumothorax is an accumulation of air outside the lungs, but inside the chest wall. The air outside the lung prevents the lungs from inflating normally, and can lead to lung collapse. There are several variations of pneumothorax.

  • Tumors of the prostate are relatively uncommon in dogs and extremely rare in cats. The most common tumor is prostatic adenocarcinoma. Clinical signs include blood in the urine, changes in urination habits, or straining to urinate or defecate. Metastasis to the pelvic bone and/or lumbar spine is likely. FNA of the prostate aids in the diagnosis, though surgical biopsy may need to be considered. Treatment is limited. Stents may be placed in patients with tumors obstructing the urethra. Radiation therapy in conjunction with NSAID therapy has shown significant survival advantage when compared to pets who did not receive NSAID therapy. The role and/or benefit of chemotherapy is not well understood.

  • Common conditions of pet rabbits include snuffles, internal and external parasites, overgrown incisors, uterine problems (infections or cancer), and sore hocks.

  • Radiation therapy is the medical use of high dose radiation to destroy cancer cells by damaging the cells’ DNA to interfere with cell replication and kill them. It may be used on its own or in combination with other treatments, such as surgery or chemotherapy, or to reduce the size of very large tumors prior to surgery. There are several radiation protocols used in veterinary medicine. Your veterinary oncologist will choose the therapy most appropriate for your pet’s individual situation.

  • Common conditions of pet rodents include respiratory diseases, anorexia and lethargy, overgrown teeth, and tumors.

  • Round cell tumors are among the most common skin tumors in dogs, and they typically form just under the skin, although they may change the surface of the skin above them. When caught early, most round cell tumors are removed easily, and surgery is generally curative. The most important take home message is to be vigilant, and to have any skin lumps or bumps assessed by your veterinarian promptly.