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  • There are over 30,000 species of spiders worldwide, and most of these spiders are venomous. Most spiders are unable to produce medically-significant envenomations, however, because of their small mouthparts that are unable to penetrate the skin. The two groups of spiders responsible for most medically-significant spider bites include the widow spiders (including the black widow spider) and the recluse spiders (including the brown recluse).

  • The suspensory ligament supports the fetlock and protects it from hyperextension (i.e., dropping too low) at exercise. The ligament begins at its attachment to the back of the upper cannon bone in both the fore and hindlimbs.

  • Taurine is a type of amino acid, and amino acids form the main constituents of all proteins. Taurine is exclusively found in animal-based proteins.

  • Bird proofing your home is a great way to help keep your bird safe and healthy. After all, your bird's cage is its house and the confines of your home represent the bird's environment.

  • There are several options available for keeping your dog safe from the dangers of roaming. There are some pros and cons to consider with invisible fences.

  • When choosing a dog, potential pet owners often consider acquiring a pup with a pedigree vs. a mixed breed. In order to make a more educated choice, it is good to know a little about what makes a pure breed so 'pure' as well as what 'mutts' have to offer. Dogs of pedigree can be wonderful pets or service dogs, so avoiding inherited medical problems is important.

  • Therapeutic ultrasound is used as a treatment modality (method) to exert thermal, mechanical, and chemical effects on the treated tissues to enhance and facilitate healing. Physical therapists have used therapeutic ultrasound on human patients since the 1940s, and veterinarians have used it on animals since the 1970's.

  • An esophagostomy tube is a small rubber tube that enters the esophagus through a surgical incision on the side of the neck. This allows food you to place food directly into the esophagus so that it can flow down into the stomach. The feeding tube is not placed directly into the stomach.

  • A pharyngostomy tube is a small rubber tube that enters the skin through a small incision in the side of the neck. The tube enters the esophagus, through the pharynx (back of the throat), allowing food to bypass the mouth and be delivered to the stomach. The pharyngostomy tube does not go all the way into the stomach because of the risk of complications that can occur.

  • A vaccine is a specially-made medicine that stimulates the body to produce an immune response to a particular infection. Most vaccines are given by injection of a small volume of liquid into the muscle, although there are a few given intranasally (i.e., via the nostril) (strangles vaccine), or by mouth (e.g., polio vaccine in humans).